Fertilisation and embryo develpment
Fertilisation covers all stages which result in the fusion of a mature oocyte and a spermatozoid (also known as the male and female gametes) as a single cell known as a zygote, which will then form the embryo following a succession of divisions.
very month, women expel a mature ovule from their ovaries: this is ovulation. Of course, several oocytes may be ovulated, leading to a multiple birth. Ovulation usually occurs mid-cycle (around day 14).
The key causes of male infertility either have to do with alteration of sperm quality, or difficulty achieving fertilisation (difficulty with erection and/or ejaculation). Interviewing and physically examining the man is as important as it is with the woman where infertility consultations are concerned…
Insemination is a technique in medically assisted procreation (MAP) which involves placing laboratory-prepared spermatozoids into the uterus. It seeks to optimise the encounter between the ovule(s) and spermatozoids.
In vitro fertilisation (IVF and ICSI)
In vitro fertilisation (IVF), with intrauterine insemination, is the primary technique in medically assisted procreation. IVF enables the gametes (oocytes and spermatozoids) to meet outside the women’s genitalia, bringing one into the presence of the other in the laboratory.
Environment, lifestyle and fertility
bout one couple in six has difficulty conceiving, and the number of couples concerned is steadily increasing. Once of the hypotheses which would explain this trend is that there are behavioural and environmental factors.
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is offered when one of the two members of a couple, or both, presents either a chromosome abnormality or a gene DNA mutation identified previously.
The first live birth after an IVF-induced pregnancy took place in 1978 in the United Kingdom and in 1982 in France. Since then, several million children have been born across the world using MAP techniques and we have therefore a relatively significant feedback on the progress of these pregnancies.
Certain couples cannot have a child either naturally or through medical support in procreation. In vitro fertilisation has sometimes failed several times. In some cases, the woman produces only a very few eggs (oocytes)…
Gamete donation is managed by Centres d’Etudes et de Conservation de Œufs et du Sperme (CECOS). Twenty-nine CECOS cover France and co-ordinate donation with all of the approved centres offering Medically Assisted Procreation (MAP).
Female fertility preservation
Recent advances in freezing techniques mean that we are now able to freeze oocytes. This has marked the turning point in the field of female fertility preservation.
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